Saturday, November 3, 2012

Mathematical Research in France

More than any other city on the planet, Paris is the world’s center for mathematics...”
Marcel Berger’s assertion was confirmed by the granting in 2010 of two more Fields medals to Parisian mathematicians.

This statement by mathematician Marcel Berger, an internationally renowned specialist in differential geometry who has worked in Japan and the United States, as well as in France, is not an idle one − it was confirmed in a study conducted by the American periodical ScienceWatch in 2005. Paris indeed has the world’s highest concentration of mathematicians, many at IHES or Pierre et Marie Curie
(Paris 6), Paris Diderot (Paris 7) , and Paris-Sud 11.École Normale Supérieure ,Paris Dauphine, Ecole Polytechnique ,Toulouse, Strasbourg, and Grenoble are pioneers of their fields. In addition, one can cite the 40 joint research units maintained by CNRS and INRIA with universities in Bordeaux, Lyon, Lille, and Rennes…

A strong mathematical tradition

The century of Louis XIV was also that of Descartes, Fermat, and Pascal. At the time of the Revolution, Laplace, Lagrange, Legendre, Condorcet, d’Alembert, and Monge commanded center stage in mathematics. They, in turn, were followed by Fourier, Cauchy, Galois, Poncelet, and Chasles − a line of succession just as impressive, if less often invoked, as that linking France’s writers. We forget that at the outset of the 19th century more foreign scholars arrived in Paris for its scientific culture than for its literary dazzle. By the end of the century and into the early 20th century, the capital played host to the prominent personalities of Jordan, Poincaré, Borel, Lebesgue, and
Lévy, among others.

Pierre-Simon Laplace, also known as Newton of France.

Here is a picture from 1951 of the Bourbaki group meeting at some pleasant retreat. From left to right, we have Jacques Dixmier, Jean Dieudonné taking notes, Pierre Samuel lighting a cigarette in a holder, André Weil wearing shorts, Jean Delsarte leaning back in a chair and Laurent Schwartz under the parasol, also busy scribbling away.
Henri Poincaré (29 April 185417 July 1912) was France's greatest mathematician, he published in every branch of mathematics and was also a world-renowned theoretical physicist, engineer and philosopher of science.
The 1930s saw the founding of the Bourbaki group,a group founded by Mathematics professors based at École Normale Supérieure which revolutionized Mathematics, preparing the way for the prodigious expansion of the 1950s and beyond. The reasons for that expansion are many: an increase in the theoretical research that underpins practical applications in every economic sector, in parallel with the explosion of computer science and robotics; the “mathematicization” of economic analysis;foundation of Financial mathematics, the flexibility and diversity of the system of mathematical research, which had been freed from some of the constraints of the university system by the emergence of other sources of financing; the autonomy of mathematical researchers, who are less dependent on large budgets than researchers in some other disciplines; the arrival in France of Russian mathematicians; the prestige in France of pure intellectual research; and the commitment of great mathematicians to the freedom of thought and criticism.Today many students from all over the world come to France to study maths with Université Paris-Sud and  Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie as top centers of mathematical research.French mathematicians were pioneers of Financial Math and still are the leading academics in Financial Math, Nicole El Karoui, Marc Yor and Hélyette Geman are world's best  financial math academics.

Professor Nicole El Karoui ,French mathematician and pioneer in the development of Mathematical Finance."DEA El Karoui",a graduate programme run by El Karoui is one of  the most prestigious program in quantitative finance in the world.

Fields Medal

Since 1936, Fields medals have been awarded every four years to mathematicians under the age of 40. French mathematicians have won the this prize, this makes France the leader in winning this prestigious prize. The first French winner was Laurent Schwartz, a graduate of the École Normale Supérieure (ENS) and professor at the École polytechnique. More recent demonstrations of the tradition of French excellence in mathematics came with award of Fields medals to Laurent Lafforgue (2002), a graduate of École Normale Supérieure and professor at the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHES); to Wendelin Werner (2006), professor at Université Paris-Sud 11 and École Normale Supérieure; and, in 2010, to Cédric Villani, director of the Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris (Université Pierre et Marie Curie and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) and professor at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, and Ngô Bảo Châu, professor at Université Paris-Sud.

The Abel Prize, established in 2003 has already had 3 French
Jean-Pierre Serre of the Collège de France (2003), Jacques Tits of the Collège de France (2008, jointly with American John Griggs Thompson), and Franco- Russian Mikhaïl Leonidovich Gromov, of IHES (2009).

Sunday, August 26, 2012

Summary of Nietzsche' Philosophy


Nietzsche was born in Röcken, the Prussian province of Saxony, on October 15th, 1844. His father died when Nietzsche was five years old, hence, his childhood was spent with his mother, sister and two maiden aunts. He graduated in 1864, and continued studies in theology and classical philology and the University of Bonn.He was brilliant at the university as a classicist and student of philology, so much so that in 1869 when he was 24, before he had taken his degree, he was offered a professorship of philology at Basel(Chair of Classical Philology), which he accepted. It was in Basel that Nietzsche became a close friend of Richard Wagner,at age thirty-five, to relinquish his chair as a classics professor at the University of Basle and seek a quieter, calmer place for the full-time writing of experimental philosophy.

Nietzsche later encountered adversities in his life, the rejection of Lou Andreas-Salome to his proposal of marriage, along with his ongoing resistance to Prussian citizenship (which he had given up in 1869), provoked a withdrawal of Nietzsche.He was sensitive , deep and a solitary thinker.  He remained stateless for the rest of his life, preferring the life of a tourist-scholar and spending his time writing in boarding houses -the summers in Switzerland and the winters in Italy. Thus Nietzsche found Sils Maria, where walking, and the electromagnetic power of the Engadine valley, gave him solace and inspiration, supplemented by hashish oil, which contributed to his very deep thinking.

 On June 3rd, 1889, while standing on the Piazza Carlo Alberto in Turin, Nietzsche suffered a nervous breakdown when he saw a man beating a horse; sobbing, he rushed to embrace and comfort the horse, placing both arms around the nag’s neck.During this time he published nine books, between 1872 and 1888, while preparing four others for publication.The mediocrity of man, along with syphilis microbes mulching his brain, and hashish oil and chloral hydrate (which Nietzsche took for sleep), had driven the philosopher mad; and, faithless, since God for him had long since died, Nietzsche spent the last ten years of his life casually strolling a lunatic asylum, before transcending from the chaos of his life into a dancing star.

 Nietzsche is perhaps the most misunderstood and controversial philosopher ever.Regarded by many as the greatest and most influential philosopher since Aristotle/Plato. He is most famous for his concepts of Will to Power, Übermensch, Eternal Recurrence and Master-Slave Morality

Nietzsche wrote many masterpieces of western philosophy including Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Human All Too Human,Will to Power, Beyond Good and Evil, Ecce Homo,Twilight of the Idols(the first work on psychology and it makes Nietzsche the founder of psychology ) and On the Genealogy of Morals.

Nietzsche's Philosophy

Friedrich Nietzsche regarded himself, rightly, as the successor of Schopenhauer, to whom,however, he is superior in many ways, particularly in the consistency and coherence of his doctrine. Schopenhauer's oriental ethic of renunciation seems out of harmony with his metaphysics of the omnipotence of will; in Nietzsche, the will has ethical as well as metaphysical  primacy.Schopenhauer's philosophy of the will is about survival and that Nietzsche is more about the will to power and not survive but dominate this world as overman.

 Though Nietzsche was influenced by Schopenhauer and even calls him a true moral human being ,but in terms of "Will" Nietzsche started a new field .Nietzsche talks about "Will to Power" while Schopenhauer talks about the "Will to Life" or "Will to Survive". Nietzsche’s positive attitude toward willing is almost opposite to Schopenhauer’s concept of the will. Nietzsche stresses that "Will" ( Schopenhauer’s concept)is not mere survival and Nietzsche advances his theory and stated that Will is not mere survival but urge or will to power.Nietzsche knows this and argues that what Schopenhauer calls "will" is a mere empty word. For Nietzsche, there are no transcendental powers to give us our laws, neither a Kantian maxim to tell us what we should do, nor laws from God. This is the reason why Nietzsche makes the existence of all moral questionable and considers himself to be an ultra-moral being who is beyond all morality.In fact for Nietzsche "will to survive" is lowest biological drive of an organism, Schopenhauer and many other think survival as the main task of an organism but an organism will only make survival as its vital task only when it is threatened but otherwise it will strive for power. Nietzsche considered his philosophy to be a correction of Schopenhauer’s philosophy.

Bust of Nietzsche

"Nietzsche had more penetrating knowledge of himself than any man who ever lived or was likely to live."
Sigmund Freud on Nietzsche
Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer. The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism (Schopenhauer's two principles of morals) Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong. These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche."

He attempts to combine two sets of values which are not easily harmonized: on the one hand he likes ruthlessness, war, and aristocratic pride and while on the other hand, he loves philosophy and literature and the arts (Italian Renaissance art), especially music. Historically, these values coexisted in the Renaissance; Pope Julius II, fighting for Bologna and employing Michelangelo, might be taken as the sort of man whom Nietzsche would wish to see in control of governments, Nietzsche's Übermensch will be a Machiavellian warrior of higher biological type , and a man who can master whole spectrum of human potential(both good and evil). Ubermensch will be a polymath with supreme intellect, promoter of arts, knowledge ,culture and with the artistic brilliance that defined Italian Renaissance. It is natural to compare Nietzsche with Machiavelli, in spite of important differences between the two men. As for the differences: Machiavelli was a man of affairs, whose opinions had been formed by close contact with public business, and were in harmony with his age; he was not pedantic or systematic, and his philosophy of politics scarcely forms a coherent whole; Nietzsche, on the contrary, was a professor, an essentially bookish man, and a philosopher in conscious opposition to what appeared to be the dominant political and ethical trends of his time. The similarities, however, go deeper. Nietzsche's political philosophy is analogous to that of The Prince (not The Discourses), though it is worked out and applied over a wider field. Both Nietzsche and Machiavelli have an ethic which aims at power and is deliberately anti-Christian, though Nietzsche is more frank in this respect.Indeed, Machiavelli’s ideas were so controversial that in 1559 all of his writings were banned in Italy until the 19th century. Similarly, it has been alleged that Nietzsche advances the thesis that immorality in general is admirable.

Machiavelli and Nietzsche praise a sort of ‘supramorality’ which aims above the traditional limits of morality to attain a higher goal.
Nietzsche's political philosophy is also similar to Aristotle's political ideas (ruled by the elite or aristrocrats). What Caesar Borgia was to Machiavelli, Napoleon was to Nietzsche: a great man defeated by petty opponents.He states ordinary herds as bunch of useless people,mediocre people from all directions are joining hands (dominion of the inferior people) to overcome the noble men or aristocrats and thus the noble men should be powerful and disciplined to control and maintain their power, this idea of his is called Master-Slave Morality.Since the powerful are few in number compared to the masses of the weak, the weak gain power by corrupting the strong,Nietzsche defined master morality as the morality of the strong-willed.Noble caste or the aristocratic race is always the barbarian and that they are biologically more powerful, they have less fear and have strong will and they always are obsessed with power.Masters do not follow herds and that herd morality is fit for the common people and that Nietzsche's overman should follow aristrocratic etics.Nietzsche said once that he wished to live in the time of Medici in Florence or in the times of Pericles in Athens. 

He admires certain qualities which he believes (perhaps rightly) to be only possible for an aristocratic minority; the majority, in his opinion, should be only means to the excellence of the few, and should not be regarded as having any independent claim to happiness or well-being.He alludes habitually to ordinary human beings (ordinary people here are those who have less biological drive towards power) as the "bungled and botched," and sees no objection to their suffering if it is necessary for the production of a great man. Nietzsche states that everything that pampers, that softens, and that brings the 'herds' to the front, operates in favor of universal suffrage-that is to say, the dominion of 'inferior' men.He also states that the herds or common/inferior join themselves to harm the noble men.

He is fond of expressing himself paradoxically and with a view to shocking conventional readers. He does this by employing the words "good" and "evil" with their ordinary connotations.He suggests that good is what benefits you or what gives you power or success and evil is that which makes you weak or which causes loss or failure. His book, Beyond Good and Evil,really aims at changing the reader's opinion as to what is good and what is evil, but professes,except at moments, to be praising what is "evil" and decrying what is "good." There is some sort of equivalence in value between my actions and thine." True virtue, as opposed to the conventional sort, is not for all, but should remain the characteristic of an aristocratic minority. It is not profitable or prudent; it isolates its possessor from other men; it is hostile to order, and does harm to inferiors. It is necessary for higher men to make war upon the masses, and resist the democratic tendencies of the age, for in all directions mediocre people are joining hands to make themselves masters.Everything that pampers, that softens, and that brings the 'people' to the front, operates in favor of universal suffrage-that is to say, the dominion of 'inferior' men.Overmen should be able to resist themselves from such actions.Nietzsche's ethic is not one of self-indulgence in any ordinary sense; he believes in Spartan discipline and the capacity to endure as well as inflict pain for important ends. 

Nietzsche admires strength of will above all things.Nietzsche states that "I assess the power of a will by how much resistance, pain, torture it endures and knows how to turn to its advantage". He continues "I do not point to the evil and pain of existence with the finger of reproach, but rather entertain the hope that life may one day become more evil and more full of suffering than it has ever been." He regards compassion as a weakness to be combated. "The object is to attain that enormous energy of greatness which can model the man of the future by means of discipline and also by means of the annihilation of millions of the bungled and botched, and which can yet avoid going to ruin at the sight of the suffering created thereby, the like of which has never been seen before." He prophesied with a certain glee an era of great wars; one wonders whether he would have been happy if he had lived to see the fulfillment of his prophecy.Nietzsche like Schopenhauer is an admirer of Buddhism and that its social impact is best and Buddhism is nihilist like Nietzsche's philosophy.Nietzsche and Buddhism share many common features: both emphasis the centrality of humans in a godless cosmos and neither looks to any external being or power for their respective solutions to the problem of existence.Though Nietzsche wants overman to gain power and self mastering but Buddhism does not talk about will to power or rule by higher men.

Nietzsche's Portrait.

Nietzsche's philosophy covers wide range of areas like religion, arts, poetry, visual arts, moral philosophy, metaphysics , field of law and legal research ,political philosophy, visual arts , existentialism, psychology, morality, literature ,aesthetics, music , classical philology, painting, social philosophy, individualism , the drive to gain power and anarchism.

Nietzsche is not, however, a worshiper of the State; far from it. He is a passionate individualist, a believer in the hero. The misery of a whole nation, he says, is of less importance than the suffering of a great individual: "The misfortunes of all these small folk do not together constitute a sum-total, except in the feelings of mighty men."Nietzsche is not a nationalist, and shows no excessive admiration for Germany. He wants an international ruling race, who are to be the lords of the earth: "a new vast aristocracy based upon the most severe self-discipline, in which the will of philosophical men of power and artist-tyrants will be stamped upon thousands of years."

Nietzsche's Übermensch and Will to Power
Overman or Übermensch is a  neo-aristrocatic (neo or ultra-aristrocrat) hero who roams beyond good and evil, no longer bound to a universalistic mission , with ruthless warrior pride , with higher biological drive,and the artistic skills that match Italian Renaissance.They think and act independently and they are creative , genius and strong to overcome and face hardships. These values never existed in history of mankind. Though there were many Machiavellian aristocrats i.e Theodore Roosevelt or Henry Kissinger but they never had artistic skills(that matched Italian Renaissance) in them nor they were warriors and neither they were not of higher biological drive and so they were not "ultra aristocrats".In fact doing all he can to repel the rising tides of egalitarianism. Napolean Bonaparte who has been a hero for both radicals and conservatives in and outside France is another example of Nietzschean hero.The Übermensch has no pity or other weak sentiments; he is beyond all compassion and feminine feelings because they constrict the will to power.

 Nietzsche stresses on individualism,he never lived long enough to see his prophecy fulfilled ,he wants an international ruling race, who are to be the "lords of the earth", "a new vast aristocracy based upon the most severe self-discipline (Spartan discipline), in which the will of philosophical men of power and artist-tyrants will be stamped upon thousands of years".Nietzsche honours men for fitting Machiavelli's description of the artist rulers who take the 'matter' of humanity and mould it "into whatever form they desired".

Übermensch and Will to Power is  a 'psychological presupposition' which assumes that humans are always attempting to inflict their wills upon others. When considering the use of the term 'ubermensch' or 'overman'  it is also necessary to understand exactly what Nietzsche means by this term. This is seen by many as the way in which he refers to a 'superhuman'. However, this has been re-evaluated by many scholars, and the comparison is no longer seen in the same light. The overman is seen as the next step up from normal humans; this creature could even be interpreted as the next step up the evolutionary ladder.The creature is dichotomy, seeing himself as superior and a master of his environment, but simultaneously he hates his human self, seeing his weaknesses and flaws. In this manner of representation, one must question if this creature could ever become a reality. Cross argues that the overman is a contradiction in terms of existence which cannot be resolved due to the constraints which Nietzsche applies to this hypothetical creature. Nietzsche has the view that mankind as it exists is a disease of a 'sickness' which is destroying itself, reflecting the poor nature of a modern man and his lack of pro-activism, being seen as a purely passive creature unable to rebel and define his life. 

Bronze Sculpture of Nietzsche

 The freedom of the Ubermensch is that the individual despises what he is and has been, and in this is able to learn to command himself. However, this is a difficult and self-destructive process. The perception of the command over power is an interesting one; it is not the straight forward meaning of control over others, but also the control over one's self. In The Will to Power, Nietzsche sees those who look to improve themselves as looking to the 'will to truth'. However, he argues that in doing this, they are not really seeking new values, but that they are trying to find a way of bringing all men under the same code of understanding. Nietzsche says he believes that a man who acts out of laziness, or does not act for the same reason is bad, and this passive stance allows the weaknesses of society to become more entrenched and accepted, this becoming of a self-fulfilling prophecy-- the more it happens, the more it will cause its continuation. The passive man does not display obedience to himself, but to society
. The Ubermensch is obedient to himself, arguably the hardest type of obedience. Therefore, the will to power is the power to set one's own values and one's own goals. The power is therefore not any type of physical brute force, but a strong and enduring self-determination. This shows the dichotomy that Nietzsche puts forward for how can a man full of self-loathing and sickness, aware of his own weaknesses, ever become this self-determinist creature, yet still aware of his faults Nietzsche argues that the achieve this, a man must be free of the weaknesses of society; he must not be bound by the convention that the strong have to help the weak. This convention only leads both parties to become even weaker. Nietzsche believes that the only way of overcoming this sickness in society is for the next evolutionary step to be taken-- the weak be left to their own devices, whilst the strongest develop themselves. 

 The Overman is not an impossible goal or ideal. Most people take the Overman to be an unachievable goal which we must all strive to become. A common interpretation of the Overman is that he is a self-interested being who only cares about becoming more and more powerful. This take, no doubt, is related to Nietzsche's conception of the Will to Power - that every will seeks to grow stronger and to dominate over all over wills.Instead Overman is a noble aristocrat who will help the people in Machiavellian way (Machiavelli's suggests that the ruler will make poor rich and rich less prone to gaining more wealth).Overman will be Machiavellian in nature with pride of a warrior,will have supreme intellect, he will be a polymath, a promoter of arts and culture.

According to Nietzsche, an aristocratic caste is fundamental to the ennoblement of the human species. This caste must believe that there is an order of rank that differentiates great humans from the commoners, and that they, as being of the highest rank, are the meaning and end goal of their society. Society exists in order to create the few exceptional individuals that are its crowning glory, that justify any sacrifice or hardship endured by that society. Life is will to power, says Nietzsche, and will to power is exploitation. All organic processes rely on some form of exploitation of the weaker by the stronger, and it is folly to try to eliminate this exploitation altogether. Nietzsche admires strength of will above all things. 

Nietzsche states that "I assess the power of a will by how much resistance, pain, torture it endures and knows how to turn to its advantage".
•Nietzsche’s Übermensch is capable of the will to power and reevaluating all the values.
•The Übermensch has no pity or other weak sentiments; he is beyond all compassion and feminine feelings because they constrict the will to power and he is ready for hardships and sufferings.

Nietzschean hero becomes strongest ,most symptomatic and militant expression of that modern tendency.Nietzsche's great man or overman breaks apart from common limits (breaking out of the herd mentality) declaring himself self sufficient and a crusader against the perceived leveling down of mass society.Nietzsche was against the mindless social behavior of "herds" or mass society.The overman does not submit himself to an authority but rather creating yourself to freely chose your own opinions.

It is curious to observe the contrast between his arguments and those of the French philosophers who preceded the Revolution. They argued that Christian dogmas are untrue; that Christianity teaches submission to what is deemed to be the will of God, whereas self-respecting human beings should not bow before any higher Power; and that the Christian Churches have become the allies of tyrants, and are helping the enemies of democracy to deny liberty and continue to grind the faces of the poor. Nietzsche is not interested in the metaphysical truth of either Christianity or any other religion; being convinced that no religion is really true, he judges all religions entirely by their social effects. He agrees with the philosophy in objecting to submission to the supposed will of God, but he would substitute for it the will of earthly "artist-tyrants." 

Nietzsche personally was devoted to Napoleon Bonaparte because Napoleon, in his own eyes, became a self-made, meritocratic warrior-leader and "revolutionary counter-revolutionary", who never had illusions about the commonality and simply wanted to unify Europe according to meritological criteria: "the tools to him that can handle them" was also Nietzsche's rigorously meritocratic, elitist attitude. Nietzsche was not a post-structuralist soft-peddler, but an ultra-reactionary neo-Platonist socially and neo-Machiavellian synarchic trans-national elitist, an expositor of "esoteric" caste hierarchy based on culture and spirit.

Lorenzo de Medici is very much a Nietzschean Übermensch as he was a Machiavellian politician , ruthless warrior, aristocrat ,scholar,poet and artist, master of diplomacy,foremost statesman of his time, the boss of bosses ,patron of arts(he himself paid for Italian Renaissance art), helper of poor people, an influential ruler and for what he did alone justifies that he was of higher biological type/drive.He surely had good and evil side... his good side was to help needy people of Florence, spread the philosophy of Plato and was an educationalist , patron of arts and scholars and also made arts and buildings to make Florence a beautiful city.His evil side was his ruthlessness to scare his enemies , he was Machiavellian who used deception and manipulation for 'personal' gain(this personal gain was for betterment of people of Florence) and used diplomacy to maintain his control as ruler.His mastery of diplomacy suggests that he had mastered all spectrum of human spectrum.

  Nietzsche found Silas Maria, where walking, and the electromagnetic power of the Engadin valley, gave him solace and inspiration, supplemented by hashish oil, which contributed to his very deep thinking.


Nietzsche loved playing piano composed many sonatas and liked Chopin.He also was an admirer of  Richard Wagner.

 The "noble" man or governing aristocrat will be capable of cruelty, and, on occasion, of what is vulgarly regarded as crime; he will recognize duties only to equals. He will protect artists and poets and all who happen to be masters of some skill, but he will do so as himself a member of a higher order than those who only know how to do something. From the example of warriors he will learn to associate death with the interests for which he is fighting; to sacrifice numbers, and take his cause sufficiently seriously not to spare men; to practice inexorable discipline; and to allow himself violence and cunning in war. He will recognize the part played by cruelty in aristocratic excellence: "almost everything that we call 'higher culture' is based upon the spiritualising and intensifying of cruelty." The "noble" man is essentially the incarnate will to power.

We must in the first place try to distinguish an aristocratic ethic from an aristocratic political theory. A believer in Bentham's principle of the greatest happiness of the greatest number has a democratic ethic, but he may think that the general happiness is best promoted by an aristocratic form of government. This is not Nietzsche's position. He holds that the happiness of common people is no part of the good per se. All that is good or bad in itself exists only in the superior few; what happens to the rest is of no account. The next question is: How are the superior few defined? In practice, they have usually been a conquering race or a hereditary aristocracy --and aristocracies have usually been, at least in theory, descendants of conquering races. I think Nietzsche would accept this definition. "No morality is possible without good birth," he tells us. He says that the noble caste is always at first barbarian,but that every elevation of Man is due to aristocratic society.
 "Though a very influential philosopher but Nietzsche's concept of Power , Master Morality and Ubermensch  is against Universal Love and promoter of fascism".
 Bertrand Russell

It is not clear whether Nietzsche regards the superiority of the aristocrat as congenital or as due toeducation and environment. If the latter, it is difficult to defend the exclusion of others from advantages for which, ex hypothesi, they are equally qualified. I shall therefore assume that he regards conquering aristocracies and their descendants as biologically superior to their subjects, as men are superior to domestic animals, though in a lesser degree.What shall we mean by "biologically superior"? For Nietzsche "will to survive" is lowest biological drive of an organism, Schopenhauer and many other think survival as the main task of an organism but an organism will only make survival as its vital task only when it is threatened but otherwise it will strive for power. We shall mean when interpreting Nietzsche, that individuals of the superior race and their descendants are more likely to be "noble" in Nietzsche's sense: they will have more strength of will, more courage, more impulse towards power, less sympathy, less fear, and less gentleness.Nietzsche read a lot of Aristotle's philosophy and even Nietzsche's philosophy is inspired by Aristotle.Aristotle and Plato also stress on the rule of aristocrats or rule by the best.

He could say that he knows what is good by an ethical intuition, but he will not say this, because it sounds too Kantian. What he can say, as an expansion of the word "desirable," is this: "If men will read my works, a certain percentage of them will come to share my desires as regards the organization of society; these men, inspired by the energy and determination which my philosophy will give them, can preserve and restore aristocracy, with themselves as aristocrats .There is another element in Nietzsche, which is closely akin to the objection urged by "rugged individualists" against trade-unions. In a fight of all against all, the victor is likely to possess certain qualities which Nietzsche admires, such as courage, resourcefulness, and strength of will.But if the men who do not possess these aristocratic qualities (who are the vast majority) join themselves together, they may win in spite of their individual inferiority.

Nietzsche approached the conception of 'will to power' from two distinct points of view.
First he thought of it as a craving for worldly success, which he thought as harmful to man's interest in perfecting himself.Secondly he thought of 'will to power' as a psychological drive in terms of which many diverse phenomena can be explained e.e gratitude , pity.Will to power may be ruthless and a source of evildoing but power itself doesn't corrupt but ennobles mind.The powerful as Nietzsche points out expressly have no need to prove their might either to themselves or to others by oppressing and hurting others.Only the weak men wish to hurt.

Nietzsche insists that there is more hope for a man of strong impulse than for a with no impulses(one should even look for Cesare Borgia than for Parsifal). A man with strong impulses might be evil because he has not yet learned to sublimate his impulses, but if he should ever acquire self control he might achieve greatness.Man is still a slave of his passions.Rationality on the other hand gives man the mastery over himself and as the 'will to power' is essentially the 'instinct of freedom', it can find fulfillment only through rationality.Reason is the 'highest' manifestation of the will to power.Rationality distinguishes higher men from lower men.A strong spirit is truly rational.Nietzsche considered philosophy 'the most  spiritual will to power' and proposed to masure power and weakness in terms of man's willingness to subject even his most cherised beliefs to the rigors of rationality.Nietzsche declared that 'spiritual men are the elite because they are the strongest'.

 Nietzsche believed  that men strive for power and not for pleasure.Pleasure is a creative activity and that 'in every action there is an ingredient of displeasure'. Nietzsche doesn't talk about attaining worldly power only, he wants his ideal man to be a saint, artist and a philosopher as well.For Nietzsche good people are strong, they seek liberation and power.Nietzsche doesn’t believe in evil, to him bad merely means common.Will to power is an egocentric idea but it is for advancement of mankind. 

Master-Slave Morality

According to Friedrich Nietzsche, our morality stems from a primeval time which eventually
evolved into our morality that we still have in place today. Centuries ago and beyond, there were dominant classes who were aristocrats that Nietzsche calls “masters” that created a moral code that the subordinates of their societies had to follow. These masters created this code because they affirmed themselves from the beginning, and they would affirm the self and everything related to the self. This is the primary phenomena for their morality, which they enforced amongst everyone that was below them in society. In this way, masters love their enemies for the sole reason that their enemies resemble the self that is being affirmed, but they despise things that are unlike the self. Things that are unrelated to the self are considered secondary to the masters, and they do not need an anti-master to define themselves. These masters realize that there are non-masters which are secondary and insignificant, and they consider these people in society contemptible. In this sense, the masters consider themselves and things related to the self “good,” and they consider the non-masters and things unrelated to the self as “bad.” The non-masters in the society may accept this and even follow the master’s morality code, and they may realize that they are not as great as these masters.These "masters" are not part of herds and do not follow the rules and vales of herds.Masters who follow herd-morality are not free-spirits and so do not think beyond the normal thought and so these masters are not part of Nietzsche's noblemen or overmen.

Every elevation and progress of "man" has been the work of an aristocratic society.

Nietzsche objects to herd morality because it values what does not have value. It is in the interests of lower, not higher men. If each person’s values help establish favorable conditions for themselves, then the triumph of herd morality will lead to the continuation of herd-like people. It is therefore not something for the human race as a whole to live by.Herd morality is a development of the original slave morality which inherits most of its content, including a reinterpretation of various traits: impotence becomes goodness of heart, craven fear becomes humility, submission becomes ‘obedience’, cowardice and being forced to wait become patience, the inability to take revenge becomes forgiveness, the desire for revenge becomes a desire for justice, a hatred of one’s enemy becomes a hatred of injustice.When Nietzsche condemns pity, he is not suggesting we should be heartless. He isn’t Equality and democracy are instincts of ‘the herd’, values that favor the unexceptional and mediocre.

An 1889 portrait of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Nietzsche despised democracy and notion of 'equality of rights' and 'sympathy with sufferers' because he believed that this would be robbing the conditions that could make them great.Poverty, violence and sufferings are opportunities of making the mediocre into something substantial with more spirit and will to power.
Portrait of Nietzsche

Unable to be excellent, the mediocre reverse the values of life. Slaves turn the natural domination of the strong over the weak into wickedness; success becomes a form of sin, and creative achievement indicates prideful selfishness.When Nietzsche condemns pity, he is not suggesting we should be heartless. He isn’t talking about refusing to give food to someone hungry. He opposes pity as the basis of morality, because pity seeks to eliminate suffering, which(suffering) is the origin of greatness. First ,pity wrongly preserves the weak and prevents people from becoming stronger through suffering. Second, pity demeans both the person who is shown pity and the person who shows it. The pitied person is shown to lack power, and their self-respect will be undermined; so pity brings them more suffering. The person who shows pity suffers for the suffering of the other person – again, doubling suffering. And they show a lack of  self-respect, as pity asserts a false equality, that ‘you and I’ suffer together. Third, human  beings inevitably suffer, so pity’s attempt to alleviate all suffering sets itself against life. Finally, pity sees individuals as valuable, but, Nietzsche has argued, the goal of  humankind lies in its highest specimens. Nietzsche’s pity does not focus on ‘social  welfare’, but on how the human race as a whole has been reduced, prevented from greatness, by values of a morality of pity.

As a result of master morality, another type of morality is formed and this is called slave morality. Slave morality arises when a society or group of people are in a negative social situation, but it is not limited to the socially subordinate. This type of morality starts with an idea that something is “evil” which can be defined as power that hurts the victims. The “good” for slave morality is equivalent to niceness and these people affirm themselves by thinking that it is profound to be nice and treat people as equals, which is absent for the masters. The qualities that define good for master morality are the qualities that define evil for slave morality. The victims of this social situation create a concept that they call ‘free will’ and they say that the master morality has free will, and this leads to their justification for why their slave morality is superior to the master morality.Masters or Aristocrats are bastions of honour, pillars of virtue and steeped nobility exemplified, the ruling class across the globe. All ranks and file of society gain peace when this noble class rules (a dying breed these days). Higher men need no approval and they determine values and pass judgement.They justify their moral superiority by stating that they are better people since they do not desire to cause harm and coercion to others, and they create a moral code based on doing the opposite of what the masters are doing to them. They define themselves as anti-masters.What makes a man great in political terms is his ability to go above the constant antagonisms of life and to see a higher purpose and does does good to humanity.They are hard willed but yet sweet and fragrant.They make a sum total from all that they see and experience. This is paradoxical in itself because they are exercising their power over the masters through their created moral code, while they oppose the power and coercion that the masters exercise over them in which they created the moral code in the first place. For Nietzsche, this(slave morality and resistance against the aristrocrats) is an act of hypocrisy and inconsistency, since the slaves are acting upon their will to power just like the masters are, even though they try to hide it through the definition of their morals.Weakness conquered strength, slave conquered master, re-sentiment conquered sentiment. This resentment Nietzsche calls "priestly vindictiveness", which is the jealousy of the weak seeking to enslave the strong with itself. Such movements were, to Nietzsche, inspired by "the most intelligent revenge" of the weak. Nietzsche saw democracy and Christianity as the same emasculating impulse which sought to make all equal—to make all slaves.

 "Everything that pampers, that softens, and that brings the 'herds'  to the front, operates in favor of universal suffrage-that is to say, the dominion of 'inferior' men." 

Dominion of 'inferior' men against the aristocrats-the noble masters. Vindictiveness, which is the jealousy of the weak or "herds" seeking to enslave the strong with itself,"the most intelligent revenge" of the weak- to make all equal or to make everyone slaves/weak.Nietzsche is opposed to slave morality because of their hypocrisy. Slave morality is weakness and it is still a manifestation of the will to power, despite their supposed opposition to the will to power. According to Nietzsche, slave morality has a unique cultural origin and this is ancient Judaism, and anywhere else that this type of morality exists can be traced back to ancient Judaism. The ruling class of the Jews created this morality possibly in response to being overrun by Babylon and other colonialism.Now, and when Nietzsche was alive, slave morality or herd-morality was and still is the dominant morality that Western culture has accepted as universal. 

Power , nobility, independence and survival instinct makes a man higher or master.While slaves are one who are weak, corrupt and lack strength to dominate.Nietzsche does not separate these two types of humans according to their social status or capital they have but values which they posses.But because Nietzsche's Master-Slave Morality theory was misused by Nazis and many British philosophers criticized it so it was not read much.One good example of his theory is of the British land-lord class , though they were noble and powerful but they became lazy due to supply of money without any work and even no struggle for dominance in society so after few centuries they lost all the land they owned and now they are being over taken by the struggling man who were always thriving for survival and dominance.While the French Revolution was the result of corruption by slave class.

Alexis de Tocqueville the french political philosopher was the first person to suggest the installation of principles and values of old aristocracy in the new ,emerging democratic society of future.

Nietzsche claims that this slave morality that we still live by today is based on resentment. Slave morality only exists if their is a hostile external world to be resentful towards, and in this resentment the slaves’ spirits love to hide and not be open with the self, as opposed to the masters who are open with the self and live in an “upright” manner. There is a constant venomous, sour taste in the mouths of those who live in a state of resentment, and these venom-spreaders live pessimistic and fearful lives. Their resentful attitudes and thoughts are their anesthesia and these men will live a life of regression rather than progression. These humans of slave morality are on their way to the middle and none of them will reach a new, evolved level of existence, if they continue striving for the mediocre of existence. Slave morality is the morality that makes humans become slaves of the mediocre, and if men want to become higher men, they must rise above this morality in a creative new manner, into becoming Overmen. The answer does not lie in master morality or slave morality, but in a new, self-affirming, individualistic style of living life; the life of a free spirit that satisfies and affirms his will to power.Nietzsche's philosophy is nihilist and the only religion he prefers is Bhuddism which is to some extent also nihilist.Nihilism is Westernized Buddhism with some additions, Nietzsche added a few stuff like the Ubermencsh and Will to Power but retained many fundamental beliefs .Schopenhauer was in fact a teacher of Bhuddism but Nietzsche changed few things and made it slightly different.
"A nihilist is a man who judges of the world as it is that it ought not to be, and of the world as it ought to be that it does not exist. According to this view, our existence (action, suffering, willing, feeling) has no meaning: the pathos of 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos — at the same time, as pathos, an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists."
—Friedrich Nietzsche, KSA 12:9 [60], taken from The Will to Power.
But why should we reject herd morality and accept the value Nietzsche gives to will to power? One answer is that life is the will to power , mastering and hardening oneself is part of nature nothing and without life can be valued – valuing life is valuing the ground of all values.

Nietzsche was himself a grand psychologist and in fact the book" Twilight of the Idols" was named by Nietzsche as "Idol hours of a Psychologist" and all his philosophy is very practical philosopher because he was a supreme psychologist.I myself believe that his understanding of human psychology makes his writings the most effective and deep.

Nietzsche versus Rousseau, Darwin

Rousseau's man 'has the greatest fire' and is sure of greatest popular effect , but he is also the most dangerous.He urges revolution and return to nature , which when emulated by masses , leads to unbridling of most savage and destructive forces.Goethe's man is not such menacing power , in fact Nietzsche thinks of this man as antithesis and natural reaction against a cult of Rousseau's gospel.Goethe's man is unrevolutionary and even antirevolutionary.He is concerned with himself and would like to absorb all riches of world.Nietzsche offered three criticism of Rousseau.First he thought of him as a promoter of modern Nation State.For Nation State seemed to Nietzsche the archenemy of nonconformity, self-reliazation , the "single one's" remaking of his own nature.Nietzsche secondly opposed Rousseau for his abandonment of individuality. Finally Nietzsche did not believe that liberty and equality were close to state of nature.Men as Nietzsche saw them were not naturally equal, didnot naturally love one another and were not naturally free. 

Friedrich Nietzsche influenced Existentialist philosophers, political and social philosophers, philosophers of metaphysics,legal advisers, moral philosophers, ethical philosophers, artists and writers.
Early twentieth-century thinkers who read or were influenced by Nietzsche include: 

Philosophers:Martin Heidegger, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Ernst Jünger, Theodor Adorno, Georg Brandes, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Leo Strauss, Michel Foucault, Julius Evola, Emil Cioran, Miguel de Unamuno, Lev Shestov, José Ortegay Gasset and Muhammad Iqbal,Walter Kaufmann,George Parkin Grant, Ayn Rand, Max Scheler, Jacques Derrida, Judith Butler, Brian Leiter, Maudemarie Clark,Henri Bergson,Karl Jaspers,George Grant,Tamsin Shaw. 

Sociologists:Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber

Composers:Richard Strauss, Alexander Scriabin, Gustav Mahler, and Frederick Delius,Alexander Scriabin

Historians:Oswald Spengler, Fernand Braudel and Paul Veyne

Theologians: Paul Tillich and Thomas J.J. Altizer

Novelists: Franz Kafka, Joseph Conrad, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, André Malraux, Nikos Kazantzakis, André Gide, Knut Hamsun, August Strindberg, James Joyce, D. H. Lawrence and Vladimir Bartol

Psychologists: Sigmund Freud, Otto Gross, C. G. Jung, Alfred Adler, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Rollo May and Kazimierz Dąbrowski.

Poets:John Davidson, Rainer Maria Rilke,Muhammad Iqbal,Wallace Stevens and William Butler Yeats, André Gide, August Strindberg, Robinson Jeffers, Pío Baroja, D. H. Lawrence, Edith Södergran and Yukio Mishima,

:Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso, Mark Rothko; 

Playwrights: George Bernard Shaw, Antonin Artaud, August Strindberg, and Eugene O'Neill

Authors:H. P. Lovecraft, Olaf Stapledon, Menno ter Braak, Richard Wright, Robert E. Howard, and Jack London.

Politicians: Richard Nixon, Theodore Roosevelt