Monday, December 15, 2014

Lucrezia Borgia: Depraived or Unfortunate



Lucrezia Borgia remains of the most vilified women in history. To the French novelist Victor Hugo she was the – most hideous, the most repulsive, and the most complete moral deformity. To some she walked with the night, to others she has been misunderstood, but to most she is remembered as history’s most notorious poisoner. But what drove Lucrezia Borgia to kill? Did she do so on the orders of her father and brother? Did she kill out of feelings of jealousy and lust? A women who craved love , obsessed with poetry and arts. Was she portrayed as evil by people and she did not kill anyone at all. Or was she the most unfortunate women in modern history.Historians claim that Lucrezia have been more an instrument for the ambitious projects of her brother and father than an active participant in their crimes. Her three successive marriages into prominent families helped augment the political and territorial power of the Borgias.

She was born in Subiaco, Italy, on 18 April 1480, the illegitimate daughter of the Spanish Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia and his long-time mistress Vanozza dei Cattanei.Her early life appears to have been idyllic. She was raised away from the family home by a distant relative Adriana de Mila under whose tutelage she blossomed acquiring an inquisitive mind and a deep love of the arts but she was also inculcated with the Borgia family loyalty. The demands made on her were negligible at first and she was little troubled in her early years when her greatest pleasure was in dressing up and spending days on end trying on and swapping clothes with her friends.

Life for Lucrezia was fun but all this was to change on 11 August, 1492, when her father bullied and bribed his way to the Papacy. From now on she would be a pawn in the intricate machinations of Renaissance politics. She had been betrothed at the age of 11 but the engagement had been cancelled following her father’s elevation to be Pope Alexander VI.Similarly another betrothal to the Spanish nobleman Don Cherubin do Centelles was also cancelled and a later marriage to Don Gasparo de Procida annulled.All such engagements were now considered politically inadequate as the young Lucrezia was touted around the great families of Europe.Despite being keen to make the most politically advantageous marriage possible for his daughter Rodrigo could also not bear to see her leave.He doted on his pretty young Lucrezia and their relationship was a close and intimate one. It was said that he had a special corridor constructed that led from the Pope’s bedchamber to hers and they certainly spent a great deal of time in each other’s company. Her brother Cesare was also besotted with his sister and Lucrezia similarly with her other brother, Juan. They were as inclusive as a family as they could be, possibly incestuously so, and Lucrezia was a pivotal part of all that.But were incest rumors really true?

In February, 1493, her father settled upon Giovanni Sforza, Duke of Pesaro, as Lucrezia’s future husband and they were married in June the same year. The wedding celebrations were as lengthy, extravagant, and joyous as befitted a Borgia even if the marriage itself was not.It was first and foremost a political marriage and as Sforza’s political cachet diminished so the marriage began to disintegrate.


Lucrezia Borgia in a fresco by Pinturicchio, in the Sala dei Santi the Borgia apartments in the Vatican .


Lucrezia had little time for her dullard husband .Pope soon tired of the Sforza family and needed other, more politically powerful allies and so began to arrange an annulment of the marriage. Together Pope and Cesare conspired to get rid of him.The Borgia family demanded that the marriage be annulled but Giovanni refused. He loved his wife, he declared, even if that love was not reciprocated. When Alexander allied himself with Naples, and Milan with the French, Giovanni, fearing for his life, fled from Rome and became an enemy of the Borgias.Lucrezia visited her husband in Pesaro and using her unquestioned charm managed to persuade him to return to Rome. There, with Cesare threatening menacingly he was coerced into signing the divorce papers.The Borgias began the process of annulling the marriage, charging Giovanni with impotence and nonconsummation of the marriage. Giovanni, who had a child from his first marriage, began spreading accusations that Alexander and Cesare had incestuous designs on Lucrezia. Eventually, the frightened Giovanni reluctantly agreed to admit to impotence in exchange for keeping Lucrezia's dowry, which normally would have reverted back to the family in the event of an annulment.The marriage was annuled in 1947. The angry Giovanni then accused Lucrezia of having slept with both her father and her brother.And thus, the incest rumours were born.During the divorce proceedings Lucrezia had been made to appear before the College of Cardinals to prove her virginity and thereby confirming Giovanni’s sexual inadequacy. Despite the fact that she was heavily pregnant she was found to be virgo-intacta.

  
"Contrary to what people think, Lucretia never poisoned anyone, even though poisoning was all the rage at the time. She did kill with a sword, though.Nor were claims that she had had an incestuous relationship with her own father true, probably. Her first marriage, to Giovanni Sforza, was annulled and to protect his name Giovanni probably spread the rumor of incest."
    Clara Alfano

Permitted to veil her face to preserve her dignity the likelihood is that another woman substituted for Lucrezia during the physical examination.Immediately the physical examination was completed Lucrezia, her continued presence in Rome proving an inconvenience, was ushered off to a convent. Her time in the convent was not one isolation neither was it spent in religious devotion instead she began an affair with a handsome young Spaniard Pedro Calderon, a popular messenger of the Pope’s who went by the nickname of Perotto.Lucrezia was later to claim that the child she was carrying was his, though it would appear that the pregnancy was well advanced long before she ever met Perotto.Perotto, who had also claimed that the child was his, perhaps to protect Lucrezia, though rumors were that either Cesare or Alexander was the actual father. Pedro Caldes and one of Lucrezia's maids were killed and thrown into the Tiber; rumors blamed Cesare.Lucrezia’s maid who probably knew too much and need to be silenced.The child in question was to become the notorious “Roman Infant” and the origins of the latest edition to the Borgia family were to be shrouded in mystery.An official announcement from the Vatican declared the child to be Cesare’s by an unknown mistress.

A Papal Bull never made public and discovered later declared the child to be Pope Alexander’s. It was a murky affair that has still not been fully cleared up to this day.Is it possible that a Pope fathered a child by his own daughter?The scandal would have rocked Christendom to its foundations and done much to destroy the credibility of the Catholic Church. Lucrezia perhaps provided a hint as to the real father of "Roman Infant" when she named the child, the child was named Giovanni.

Roman Infant and future Duke of Nepi, had been born in 1498, a short time before Lucrezia's secound marriage. He has been variously identified as the son of Lucrecia and a servant,the son of Cesar or Alexander and some unknown woman (as stated in two papal bulls issued in 1501, but Lucrezia's name was not mentioned in either of  papal bulls), or the incestuous offspring of Lucrecia and her father.
 

In July, 1497, tragedy struck the Borgia family when Lucrezia’s brother Juan was murdered. His body had been found floating in the Tiber riddled with stab wounds.Juan, who had not just been Lucrezia’s favourite but also her father’s, had been showered with honours over and above his older and abler brother, Cesare.They had both vied for their father’s favour, Cesare by working hard, Juan simply by being charming.Cesare was known to be insanely jealous and there is little doubt that he murdered his own brother. Lcrezia was hurt deeply by her brother's death.She was again sent away to a convent until she learned to control her grief.Upon her return to Rome, Cesare took her under his wing and she was rarely seen out except in his presence. She was even with him when he executed prisoners with a crossbow from the Vatican walls.It did nothing for her reputation.

A Glass of Wine with Caesar Borgia by John Collier, from left: Cesare Borgia (pouring wine), Lucrezia  Borgia, Pope Alexander and a young man holding an empty glass.


Throughout her life Lucrezia Borgia was both admired and feared in equal measure. That she was beautiful by the fashionable standards of her day there could be little doubt. It was said that her golden hair fell beneath her knees, that her eyes were hazel but appeared to change depending on the light, that her complexion was clear and pale, and that she had a natural grace as if walking on air.
A courtier at the time Niccolo Cagnolo described her thus:
“She is of middle height and graceful of form; her face is rather long, as is her nose, her hair is golden, her eyes grey, her mouth rather large, the teeth brilliantly white, her bosom smooth, white, and admirably proportioned. Her whole being exudes gaiety and humour.”

But there was also a darker side to Lucrezia.She regularly attended the many dinner parties that the Borgia’s were so fond of throwing that were little more than drunken orgies.She liked to organise them and would often greet the guests as they arrived.But a dinner invitation from the Borgia family was not something to be taken lightly. For many it would be a last supper.Lucrezia however was always the perfect hostess. Nothing was too much trouble and it was said that she was rarely seen without a smile. It was also said that she wore a ring that was hollowed out in the middle where was hidden a phial of poison. Whether this was true we do not know but it was certainly a rumour current at the time, and her presence at those dinner parties was to blacken her reputation for all time. 

Despite often appearing to be at war with themselves Lucezia’s devotion to the Borgia family loyalty was unquestionable and had she been ordered to kill there seems little doubt that she would have done so.On 21 July 1498, Lucrezia married yet again this time to Alfonso of Aragon, Duke of Bisceglie, a strikingly handsome young man, intelligent, sophisticated, and charming. Even Cesare was impressed by his sister’s new husband but this admiration soon changed to intense hatred when he discovered Lucrezia had fallen in love and his affection for his sister once again reared its ugly head.

As Lucrezia paid him less and less attention Cesare’s jealousy ate away at him like a cancer.Cesare was always envious to anyone who would come close to her sister, he envied Lucrezia's first husband as well. For he too had once been considered handsome in his youth but his face had long since been scarred by sustained bouts of syphilis and he now wore only black in mourning for the loss of his good looks, and even took on occasions to wearing a mask.Alfonso’s handsome features only deepened his enmity. Aware of the peril he was now in Alfonso fled Rome but was persuaded by Lucrezia, who was six months pregnant with his child, to return. On the night of 15 July 1500, Alfonso was attacked on the steps of St Peter’s. He was stabbed repeatedly and so badly beaten that he barely survived.Rescued by his attendants he was taken to his private chambers where Lucrezia and her sister-in-law Sancha remained at his bedside day and night.

Slowly they nursed him back to health.In the days that followed some of Alfonso’s men believing that Cesare was responsible for the attack on their master ambushed him in a crossbow attack but the assassination attempt failed.A furious Cesare was determined to finish the matter.On 18 August he visited Alfonso in his bedchamber where he told him in a whisper:“What was not finished at breakfast will be completed by dinner.”Later that same night Lucrezia and Sancha were lured away on a false errand and ushered into a room where Alfonso’s doctors were already being held. Left unattended and alone Alfonso was helpless.One of Cesare’s more brutal henchmen, Michelotto, strangled him to death in his bed.Cesare bragged about murdering Alfonso in a party.A hysterical and utterly distraught Lucrezia could neither be calmed nor placated and had to be sent away from Rome to live in the town of Nepi in the Etruscan Hills.

Devastated though she was by the murder of the man she loved it was not to be long before that old Borgia loyalty resurfaced. Even though the whole of Rome knew that Cesare was behind Alfono's death but Lucrezia's love for Cesare never waned. On 30 December 1501, Lucrezia was married once more this time to Alfonso d’Este, heir to the Dukedom of Ferrara. Such was Lucrezia’s frightful reputation that the marriage proposal was initially declined but a dowry of 200,000 ducats, a position in the church for Alfonso d'Este, some additional lands and a spy's report on Lucrezia's character revealed that she is a kind hearted women and all rumors about her are untrue, and so the marriage proposal was accepted. Despite this unpromising start these were to be the happiest days of Lucrezia’s life. She had been full of trepidation about her reception in Ferrara but her graciousness and charm soon won the people over. She had a lovely nature, they said.

 Not only was Lucrezia accused of incest with her father, but also with her brother Cesare.Many historians have rejected these rumors.But the leading historian of that time Francesco Guicciardini and Niccolo Macchiavelli stated in his writings that charges of incest were fact.Many writers claim that Lucrezia and Cesare exceptionally close and, for want of a better word, in love with each other in a kind of platonic love. After all, Lucrezia was able to forgive Cesare despite all the wrongs he did to her (the apparent murder of her second husband Alfonso at his hands) and Cesare would rush to her side when she was unwell, make her laugh so she would feel better - there are so many stories that show how close these two were.


"The Borgias are the victims of biased historical accounts, based on malicious rumour, Lucretia poisoned no one. She was poisoned by the pen of history and 19th century romanticism. Lucretia was instead a gifted stateswoman, she even ran the Vatican in her father's absence."
Learco Andalo, one of the world's leading experts on the Borgias.

Portrait of Lucrezia Borgia by the great Leonardo Da Vinci.


Lucrezia's son Rodrigo from her marriage to Alfonso d'Aragon was raised in his father's family, heir to Alfonso's title as Duke. Lucrezia took a very active role, though from a distance, in his upbringing. She selected staff (governesses, tutors) who would take care of him and the duchy he was heir to.Giovanni, the infamous "Roman infant," came to live with Lucrezia a few years after her marriage. She supported him financially; he was officially recognized as her brother.

  In the beginning of 1503, Lucrezia enjoyed a long relationship with her brother-in-law, Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua as well as a love affair with the poet Pietro Bembo.As she was having love affair with Bembo , Pope Alexander died. After Lucrezia heard about her father's death she went in soltitude and later ceased to play a political role and wanted to create her own identity.She led a more normal life at the brilliant court of Ferrara, which became a centre for the arts and letters of the Italian Renaissance. 
 On 15 October 1816, the Romantic poet Lord Byron visited the Ambrosian Library of Milan. He was delighted by the letters between Borgia and Bembo and said "the prettiest love letters in the world." Byron also saw the lock of Lucrezia's hair (which Lucrezia sent to Bembo in a love letter) and remarked in delight "the prettiest and fairest imaginable."








In 1505, the old Duke Ercole died and Lucrezia became Duchess of Ferrara.She was a woman of substance at last and moreover free of her family. She went on to become an admired and successful Duchess. Despite Alphonso’s coldness towards her she busied herself in refurbishing the Royal Palace and cultivating Court life. She surrounded herself with artists and poets, including the painter Titian, but she also took a string of lovers. One of whom, the courtier Ercole Strozzi, was murdered on the orders of her furious husband.
Lucrezia’s reputation in Ferrara survived her entanglement in yet another brutal murder and she was looked upon with affection as an able administrator, an impartial dispenser of justice,a businesswoman and a generous patron of the arts.She used some of her wealth to build hospitals and convents, winning the respect of her subjects.Later on Alfonso developed affection for Lucrezia because of her services to Ferrara and for being a good mother. 

 
Portrait of Lucrezia Borgia by Dosso Dossi, painted in 1508.


The last few years of Lucrezia’s life were not so happy and she was to endure sustained bouts of depression. She had not aged well and for a woman who had always taken great care over her appearance this hurt her deeply. She was also prone to periods of reflection and regret.In 1512, Lucrezia withdrew from public life and turned to religion. It is speculated that her withdrawal was in response to the news that Rodrigo, her son by Alfonso of Aragon, had died. She turned more to her religion, spending more time at convents, and even began wearing a hair shirt (an act of penance) under her fancy gowns. Visitors to Ferrara commented on her melancholy, and that she seemed to age rapidly. In 1518, she wrote, in one of her surviving letters, to her son Alfonso who was in France. Ironically as Lucrezia made peace with her life , on June 24, 1519, ten days after giving birth to a stillborn girl, Lucrezia Borgia died at the age of 39.Her time in Ferrara, speaks to what was likely her personal religious and ethical orientation during the time of her last marriage, once she was out of the control of her father and brother. When she was being burried her husband Alfonso fainted and had to be carried back home. Her death was much mourned by the people of Ferrara who knew her the best but not elsewhere. 



Sunday, April 13, 2014

Linguistics in the Era of Technology

Introduction

As heirs to over two millennia of language studies, we find ourselves at a point where the very role of linguistics is disputed and sometimes claimed to be incompatible with the rapid technological progress of our civilization. However, such assertions are usually made by those not familiar with the state of modern language science and its prospects for the future. The fact that the last fifty years saw more written studies on language than the previous 2, 500 is in itself indicative of the liveliness and maturity of the linguistic science. The number of universities offering courses in linguistics has been growing rapidly in the last three decades, and the number of linguists and linguistic theories has led to an amazing, though somewhat bewildering, development and expansion of the field.


 State of the art

 A common misconception in studying linguistics, or any other subject, is that it can be viewed from the perspective of the present moment.An intrinsic of property of human language is that it is a continually evolving system and the linguistic science is therefore faced with the challenge of following and describing this ever-changing object. Linguistics thus incessantly evolves, not only because of new ideas and theories, but also because of the external influences such as the social context and the dominant priorities, interests and intellectual premises. At present, these external influences are reflected in the growing scientificization of linguistics, which will be discussed in the next section. Language is today seen as a universal faculty that can be used by any living being as a means of conveying information.

The study of language in Europe has passed through a number of different stages and changed the main direction several times. We can trace the beginnings of modern linguistics to the 17th and 18th centuries, when the notion of grammars based on universalist principles and of all languages sharing common features was first developed. Since then, a number of different methods and theories have been proposed. Ferdinand de Saussure lay the foundations to the modern structural linguistics. Edward Sapir explored the relations between language studies and anthropology and his methodology remained very influential. After the Second World War linguistics began to fragment into a number of different sub-fields, leading to the emergence of psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics and ethnolinguistics that have remained significant fields of study to the present day. Noam Chomsky's Transformational- Generative grammar determined the mainstream of linguistics in the last four decades of the 20th century. His Government and Binding Theory (1979) has had a great impact on the field, though since 1991 Chomsky himself turned his attention away from GB and toward the 'minimalist programme'. A large number of scholars today are working on the minimalist programme, investigating features shared by all languages. At present, however, it is not possible to see one single approach as mainstream in linguistics. It would be more accurate to say that the greatest significance is given to a group of generative theories: minimalism, GB, lexical-functional grammar, relational grammar etc. .

Noam Chomsky,Institute Professor & Professor of Linguistics (Emeritus) at MIT. Father of modern linguistics.

The 20th century saw an expansion of the field of linguistics to include a number of non-Indo- European languages. Progress has been made in the classification of African and South-East-Asian languages, as well as the languages of Papua New Guinea, South America and Australia, to name just some. There have also been advances in reconstruction and subgrouping of Austronesian, Semitic and Uralic languages. Judging by the number of recent publications and conference papers, as well as by the number of scholars working in this area and the range of their activities, this field of research is likely to flourish in the coming years.
Another significant feature of contemporary linguistics is that it has developed into an interdisciplinary science, comprising of a number of subfields. Other areas of study have been incrporated into its subject material, leading to the emergence of psycholinguistics, biolinguistics, sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistics, computational linguistics and many other areas that are today linked more strongly than ever before. 

Apparently, the knowlegde of the neighbouring disciplines such as sociology, psychology or neuroscience has helped linguistics gain a deeper perspective. On the other hand, language science can for its own part contribute greatly to the store of knowledge in the other fields of science. For instance, a few years ago geneticists proudly announced their discovery that Finns have Asian origins, judging by the research into Y polymorphisms, male mutations prevalent in Asia that also turned out to be common in the Finnish population. If they had been familiar with recent linguistic research, they would not have given so much significance to this discovery. Namely, linguistic comparisons showed that the Finnish language is Uralic from Northern Asia several decades before this 'great breakthrough' in genetics.


Scientificization of linguistics
 
It would be unrealistic to believe that the amazing technological progress that marked the 20th century has not influenced the field of linguistics. However, contrary to the pessimistic claims of some of our conteporaries, the language science is today perhaps more alive than ever; technological revolution has only given it new methods and new perspectives. In this section we shall focus on the impact of technology on linguistics and the place and function of linguistics in the contemporary world.A unique property of linguistics is that it simultaneously belongs to the world of natural science on one hand, and the worlds of philosophy, aestetics, rhetoric and literary criticism on the other. However, we are today witnessing a rapid realignment of linguistics away from this second group of disciplines and its rapprochement with mathematics and computer science. The culmination of the scientificization of linguistics is reflected in the use of tables, formulas, statistics and calculations, in the use of mathematical schemata and the increased systematicity in the study of language. Further, wholly new directions and sub-disciplines have recently emerged and they seem to offer fruitful prospects for future research.

Technological developments have had an enormous impact on all areas of language study. The compilations of lexical databases have led to unprecedented advances in the study of the lexicon; research in phonetics is benefitting from new types of intrumentation and computational analyses; the use of statistics and computer-based experiments allows new kinds of research in psycholinguistics; computational analyses are also useful in sociolinguistics and language planning. Even space technology can be applied to the study of language: it was used in 1970 for the image enhancement of old manuscrips, and is today used to examine an illegible part ot tha Beowulf Manuscript.


New directions

The language science as we know it today has adapted itself to include and benefit from the technical innovations, rather than be overshadowed by them. The technical revolution has led to the emergence and rise of several new fields of study that are likely to play the leading role in linguistics in the coming decades. What is more, these linguistic sub-disciplines give evidence of the fact that language studies have pragmatic value in our modernized world, countering the claims that linguistics is today useless and outdated. In the following sections, I briefly describe and discuss such major new directions.


Computational linguistics

In the most general terms, computational linguistics implies the application of the concepts of computer science to the study of language. It is now growing immensely, especially in machine translation.
The idea of machines that would produce language is almost four centuries old; naturally, at that time, it was nothing but a fantasy of a curious mind. Today, there is nothing strange or even very challenging in the concept. Computers were first used for this purpose in 1946, generating translations from Russian into English. However, these and subsequent translations were very limited in possibilities and required a lot of post-editing. Since then, several systems have been developed and computational linguistics and machine translation began to attract increasing attention from scholars. Although certain advances were made, most systems of machine translation were usually limited to the language of certain professions and they did not progress beyond simple substitution of words in one natural language with words in another. In 1964 the ALPAC report, designed to evaluate the progress made in machine translation and computational linguistics, expressed a pessimistic and highly skeptical view on this matter. Consequently, the popularity of this field and the scope of attention and funding given to it decreased significantly.

At the close of the twentieth century, machine translation is once again a hot subject in both linguistics and computer science. With the development of corpus techniques, more complex translations may be attempted, trancending the old word-for-word approach. A number of models are being proposed and certain systems can achieve accuracy of 95% , though still only within the specific terminologies of certain professions. Judging by the number of institutes, seminars and conferences devoted to its study, machine translation is likely to remain a major field of research in the 21st century, as well as a commercially highly profitable discipline. We may thus expect an increase in funding and a rapid development of knowledge-based models, though, in my opinion, the problems such as syntactic ambiguity and world knowledge will not be resolved in the nearest future.


Cognitive linguistics

A growing and diverse field called cognitive science, the study of the structure and functioning of human cognitive processes, has had a huge impact on modern linguistics. Incorporating aspects of linguistics, psychology, anthropology, neuroscience and computer science, cognitive science aims to discover the cognitive processes underlying the acquisition and use of knowledge. Its interdisciplinary nature allows it to view the world outside the mind as other sciences do and draw from their experience and expertise. For instance, understanding how programmes and hardware are related in computer science we may, by analogy, better understand how human knowledge is related to the neural structure of the brain.

Cognitive linguistics aims to explore language in terms of evolutionary-developed faculties, showing how human language is interestingly related to human cognition. It is now rapidly developing into different compatible frameworks. Although the interdisciplinary nature of cognitive linguistics is mostly reflected in its connections with other branches of cognitive science, it is nowadays expanding to include the domains of discourse, pragmatics, psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics. The greatest step in this direction was made at the 8th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference held at the University of La Rioja in 2003, aimed to make relevant connections between cognitive linguistics and other approaches to language.

At the beginning of the 21st century, cognitive linguistics is one of the major fields of research, drawing increasing interest from scientists worldwide. International Cognitive Linguistics Association (ICLA) connects researchers in cognitive linguistics and is extremely active in organizing conferences, fostering regional affiliates and sponsoring various publications in the field. In the 2000s regional Cognitive Linguistics Associations, affiliated to ICLA, began to emerge. Cognitive linguistics conferences and publications are growing in number and range in many countries, to the extent that it is difficult to keep track of them all.


Biolinguistics
 
In 1980, in his book Schools of Linguistics, Geoffrey Sampson wrote: “I venture to predict...that as the linguistics of the immediate past has been psychological linguistics, so the linguistics of the near future will be biological linguistics”. At the birth of the twenty-first century, we may confirm that his prediction was accurate. Biolinguistics has become one of the major areas of research, drawing increasing interest from scientists.Basically, biolinguistics deals with the biological side of the language, trying to translate the linguistic phenomena into terms of muscular movement and glandular secretion. The first comprehensive book on the bilogical side of language was Handbook of Biolinguistics by Meader and Muyskens, published in 1950. They named the branch “biolinguistics” and laid the foundations of the area that is to prove extremely productive at the close of the 20th century. Interestingly, subsequent research mostly focused on the study of individuals with injured brains and has only recently begun to go beyond such studies.
Biolinguistics is today faced with the task of answering three main questions:
1)Where in the brain are speech and language localized?
2)How does the nervous system function to encode and decode speech and language?
3)Are the components of language – phonology, syntax, semantics – neuroanatomically distinct and therefore vulnerable to separate impairment?
The growing sophistication of available equipment and new generations of instrumentation have led to great advances in the field, but no definite answers to these questions have been found as yet. They remain the guiding principles for future research in the field that seems to be blossoming at the present moment.


Conclusion

As we have seen, modern linguistics has not diminished in significance under the influence of the tecnological revolution. Having adapted itself to conteporary trends and interests, it continues to attract great attention from scholars worldwide. Intensive research in computational linguistics promises to open the door to an entire new world of discovery, in ways we can hardly yet comprehend. Cognitive linguistigs offers useful help in understanding the general nature of human knowledge, whereas the growing field of biolinguistics can give significant insight into the functioning of the human brain, often described as the next intellectual frontier. Apparently, linguistics is mostly used for pragmatic purposes that are of value to the contemporary world and is more and more strongly related to other disciplines, espacially natural and computer science.